Seminal Duct – Anatomy, Function And Pathology

Contrary to the popular belief that the male body is a gross and simple system, unlike the female, this is not at all the case. The male body is a fragile and complexly organized structure consisting of many elements. For the evacuation of seminal fluid from the body, the coordinated work of the muscular system and reproductive structures is necessary, among which the vas deferens stands out. What is this organ?

A pair of vas deferens is located in the pelvic area.

Brief anatomical information on the structure and topography

The vas deferens is a paired anatomical structure that is a direct continuation of the testicle and its appendage. The organ has the form of a narrow hollow tube of epithelial tissue localized in the abdominal cavity (in the pelvic and groin). In diameter, this structure reaches 2.5-3 mm, while the length is approximately half a meter (50 cm). Thanks to the compact arrangement, such an outstanding length is invisible. The lumen itself, through which the seed passes, is only half a millimeter. The rest of the diameter is made up of layers of epithelial tissue.

Place of the vas deferens in the male genital organs

Anatomically, in the “composition” of the vas deferens, several sections can be distinguished. The first and closest is located behind the testicle, in the center of the epididymis. This is the so-called initial or testicular section of the vas deferens. The next section is localized in the groin, reaching the inguinal ring. It runs close to the spermatic cord. It’s about the spermatic department. The third part of the vas deferens begins with the location of the inguinal ring, passes through the entire inguinal canal (a special hollow anatomical structure filled with adipose tissue) and ends in the area of the seminal vesicle. This is the pelvic fragment of the vas deferens. The final section, also called the ampullar section, passes near the prostate gland and ends with a special expansion – an ampoule.

In some sources, the inguinal section of the vas deferens is also isolated, which is localized in the inguinal canal, while the ampullar section, on the contrary, does not stand out as a separate part. The anatomical classification into four sections (testicular, spermatic, inguinal, and pelvic parts) is generally recognized.

The structure of the walls of the vas deferens

The inner part of the vas deferens is lined with a smooth mucous membrane, which is folded and looks like a folded tissue. 3-5 folds are distinguished in its structure. A similar structure is due to the need for unilateral conduction of seminal fluid towards the prostate.

Unilateral movement of seminal fluid along the vas deferens

In the middle part is the muscle layer, which provides the movement of the seed along the channel. The penultimate shell is called Advent. Finally, from the outside, the vas deferens is lined with connective tissue.

Functional features of the vas deferens

The main function of the vas deferens is to evacuate the seed from the body. Sperm is transported from the testicle to the prostate gland, where it connects with the juice of the prostate and becomes full, ready for fertilization. In this case, the movement is determined in one direction, due to, as already mentioned, the structure of the paired organ. In addition to transportation, the vas deferens provides a protective function, preventing the seed from contacting other organs and tissues. In a similar context, the entire paired organ should be considered.

Through the vas deferens, the seminal fluid moves from the testis to the prostate

Briefly about diseases of the ejaculatory organ

The described organ is subject to a number of pathological changes. Often they affect a man’s fertility. Among the diseases:


The most common disease of the anatomical structure under consideration. By its nature, it acts as an inflammatory and degenerative state. The reasons for the occurrence are various: from infectious lesions to injuries.

Deferentitis is never primary, it is always secondary to another disease or condition. Similar diseases can be: orchitis (inflammation of the testicle), epididymitis (damage to the appendage of the testicle).

Symptoms are not specific enough. Often, it is limited to mild pain in the lower abdomen, iliac regions, pubic area, near the rectal opening. Impurities of blood in the form of clots are found in semen, or seminal fluid may turn pink. Deferentitis can cause adhesions and secondary relative infertility.

Pathologies of the vas deferens often affect fertility

Vas deferens cyst

A rare disease. It is a hollow sac filled with seminal fluid and other exudate. As a rule, it occludes a hollow tube, preventing the seed from evacuating. Symptoms in no way reveals itself, identification is possible only through objective research.

Atresia (stenosis of the vas deferens)

The essence of the disease is to narrow a certain area of the paired organ. As a result, secondary infertility occurs, which is extremely poorly amenable to correction by conservative methods. Surgery is required.

All the described conditions, one way or another, do not allow the seed to be adequately excreted from the body. The result is infertility. It is revealed through spermogram.

As part of a sperm study, either hypospermia (insufficient sperm count) or necrosoospermia (complete absence of germ cells) is detected if both ducts are affected.

The vas deferens is an important component of the male body. Its role can hardly be overestimated: it is transportation and seed protection. Despite the simple structure, the described anatomical structure is subject to a mass of ailments, which are required to be treated and diagnosed only in the doctor’s office, but not on their own.